using low sulphur fuel would reduce emissions by more than 80%
This study (Potential Measures for Air Emissions from NSW Ports, 2011) commissioned by the NSW Government states that “For any given engine, using Marine Gas Oil fuel with sulphur content of 0.1% may reduce particles by 80-90%, SO2 by 80-90% and NOx by 50-60%.”
At the NSW Parliamentary Inquiry into the Performance of the EPA, the CEO of the EPA, Mr Barry Buffier said "It is interesting that all Sydney ferries are powered by diesel engines with very low sulfur fuel. Viva Energy at Gore Bay use road grade diesel in their ship the Destine there and I think other ships coming in there do too."
Road diesel has sulphur content of 0.001% so Sydney Ferries are indeed using very low sulphur fuel! it is ironic to note that the "Destine" to which Mr Buffier refers (as also using road grade diesel) is in fact the tanker used to refuel cruise ships at White Bay with bunker fuel!
On 22 May 2014, Carnival Corporation announced that it was rapidly increasing installations of industry-first exhaust gas cleaning technology (sometimes known as "scrubbers") to more than 70% of its fleet. This technology significantly reduces the dangerous ship emissions and ensures compliance with the reduced sulphur standards set in Europe and North America. It appears that the Australian fleet is excluded from this deployment.
|Emissions Control Areas and Sulphur Fuel Standards – a Comparison|
|ECA description||200 nautical miles out from the east and west coast of North America||California fuel sulphur requirements - 24 nautical miles out from the coast of California||EU directive set separate requirements for ships at berth and ships moving between EU Ports||N/A|
|Date ECA designated||August 2011||July 2009||Jan 2010||N/A|
|Fuel sulphur limits||2012 – 1%
2015 – 0.1%
|2009 – 0.5%
2012 – 0.1%
|2010 – 0.1% at berth and 1% when moving between ports||3.5%|